We come across many people with yellowish skin and eyes. These are the signs of Jaundice, the yellow discoloration of the mucous membranes, skin and the whites of the eyes. Jaundice occurs due to enhanced levels of bilbrubin in the blood. Balbrubin is the result of usual collapse and demolition of red blood cells of the body.
Persons suffering from Jaundice are seen with yellow looks of their skin and whites of the eyes. Anyone regardless of age or sex is prone to this disease.
Symptoms – Persons affected with jaundice are seen with yellowish skin and whites of their eyes. Itchiness of the skin, dark colored urine and light-colored stools are also the signs of Jaundice. Fever, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting are also common amongst the jaundice patients. General weakness, headache, reduced appetite, confusion and swelling of abdomen and legs etc are also its signs. Newborns affected with jaundice usually suffer from poor feeding, high-pitched crying, seizures, lethargy and changes in their muscle tone etc.
Causes – Natural breakdown and destruction of red blood cells in the body result in production of Bilirubin. Liver usually excretes Bilirubin in the shape of bile when it metabolizes. Jaundice may be caused due to disruption in this usual metabolism and/or Bilirubin production.
Enhanced breakdown and destruction of the red blood cells may overwhelm the liver’s capacity to remove the enhanced Bilirubin from the blood in apt manners that may lead to jaundice. Sickle cell crisis, malaria, thalassemia, spherocytosis, autoimmune disorders and G6PD are the examples of such conditions. Newborn babies may also suffer from jaundice because of their immature liver to process Bilirubin in easy manners. Other reasons are also responsible for Jaundice.
Diagnosis – A physical examination may become necessary despite the yellowish skin or whites of the eyes of the concerned patients. This is done to assess the possibility of cirrhosis of the liver. Urine and blood tests may also be required. Liver biopsy, Ultrasound, X-rays, MRI or CT scan may also be carried out by the doctors.
Treatment – The physician undergoes the various underlying causes of the problem and suggests suitable medicines. The patients may be suggested to take antibiotics, antiviral medications or steroids etc. IV fluids may be given in the cases of dehydration. Those suffering from vomiting, pain or nausea are advised to take the apt medicines. Blood transfusions, radiation or chemotherapy may be needed by the concerned persons. The newborns may require phototherapy. The physician may recommend surgery or liver transplant for serious cases of jaundice. Patients suffering from this disease should keep themselves hydrated. Use of tobacco or alcohol should be restricted. Rich diets are a must for them. Babies suffering from breastfeeding jaundice should be given enough milk. Doctor’s advice is a must for any type of medicine or treatment method. His or her instructions should be strictly followed. Unprotected intercourse or use of intravenous drugs should be avoided. Contaminated food or water should not be taken. Weight management and simple exercises are also good for the patients.